Nomenclatura Orgánica: Haluros o halogenuros de alquilo

Nomenclatura Orgánica: Haluros o halogenuros de alquilo

Son aquellos compuestos orgánicos de fórmula general R-X, donde  R representa un radical alquilo o un grupo alquilo sustituido y X cualquiera de los halógenos del grupo 17 de la tabla periódica: flúor, cloro, bromo y yodo. Estos compuestos pueden considerarse como productos de sustituir un átomo de hidrógeno de los hidrocarburos por otro de halógeno.

Clasificación de los halogenuros de alquilo
Primarios

Cuando el halógeno está enlazado a un carbono primario.

 

Por ejemplo:

 

 

Secundarios

Cuando el halógeno está enlazado a un carbono secundario.

Por ejemplo:

 

 

 

Terciarios

Cuando el halógeno está enlazado a un carbono terciario.

Por ejemplo:

 

 

 

 

 

Nomenclatura para los halogenuros de alquilo
Nomenclatura IUPAC

Se enumera la cadena principal, comenzando por el extremo que contenga más cerca el halógeno.

Se nombran los sustituyentes alquilo, indicando su posición, de acuerdo al número del carbono al que estén unidos.

Se emplean los prefijos: flúor, cloro, bromo o yodo, unidos al nombre básico del hidrocarburo. Indicando la posición del halógeno en la cadena carbonada, este número se antepone al nombre.

Nomenclatura Común

Se nombra el halogenuro como fluoruro, cloruro, bromuro o yoduro, seguido del nombre del radical alquilo correspondiente y se le añade el sufijo ilo.

 

Ejercicios

 

 

IUPAC: Clorohexano

Común: Cloruro de n-hexilo

 

 

IUPAC: 2-Bromoheptano

Común: Bromuro de secheptilo

 

 

 

 

IUPAC: 2-metil-2-yodohexano

Común: Yoduro de terheptilo

 

 

 

 

IUPAC: 1,3,5-tribromociclohexano.

Común: No tiene nombre por común.

 

 

 

 

IUPAC: 3-cloro-4-flúor-pent-1-ino

Común: No tiene nombre por común.

 

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