Oxoácidos Especiales: Ácidos del Silicio

Oxoácidos Especiales: Ácidos del Silicio

En un post anterior (Oxoácidos Especiales del Fósforo) nos referimos a los ácidos oxácidos que forma el elemento fósforo con cada estado de oxidación (3 y 5). Además hicimos referencia a la nomenclatura antigua para nombrarlos y se explicó las expresiones orto, meta y piro. Al igual que el fósforo, existen otros elementos que también forman ciertos ácidos especiales que son nombrados bajo dicha nomenclatura. Ahora es el turno del silicio.

El silicio es un semimetal situado en el grupo 14 de la tabla periódica, cuyo estado de oxidación es +4, formando tres ácidos oxácidos del tipo orto, meta y piro.

Nomenclatura Tradicional: Oxoácidos meta, piro y orto del Silicio

Como el silicio tiene un solo estado de oxidación, solo forma un óxido del cual se desprenden los siguientes ácidos oxoácidos.

Ácido meta de silicio. Este surge de la combinación del óxido de silicio más una molécula de agua.


Estado de oxidación Reacción Nomenclatura
4 SiO2 + H2O → H2SiO3 Ácido metasilícico


Ácido piro de silicio. Este se origina de la combinación del óxido de silicio más tres moléculas de agua.


Estado de oxidación Reacción Nomenclatura
4 2SiO2 + 3H2O → H6Si2O7 Ácido pirosilícico


Ácido orto de silicio. Este ácido surge de la combinación del óxido de silicio más dos moléculas de agua. En la nomenclatura se suele obviar la palabra “orto” en este tipo de oxoácidos, ya que estos son los más comunes.


Estado de oxidación Reacción Nomenclatura
4 SiO2 + 2H2O → H4SiO4


Ácido ortosilícico

Ácido silícico


El silicio: la excepción

Cuando explicamos la formación de los ácidos oxoácidos del fósforo, se pudo observar que había un orden donde el ácido orto es el que mayor cantidad de agua contiene (3 moléculas de agua) y el de menor cantidad el “meta” (una molécula de agua). No obstante, en el silicio no se sigue la misma regla que con el fósforo.

A pesar de que no tienen el mismo orden, el ácido orto sigue siendo el más hidratado. El “piro” a pesar de tener tres moléculas de agua, presenta 2 moléculas de óxido que corresponden 1,5 moléculas de agua a cada una de óxido.





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