La Química de la Oreo

La Química de la Oreo

 

Hoy en química en casa vamos a tratar de conocer un poco de la química de esta conocida pero misteriosa galleta. La Oreo, es una de las galletas más famosas del mundo, por ser deliciosa y presentar una gran variedad de sabores y presentaciones. 

¿Quién no ha probado una Oreo? ya sea que comes las tres capas de un solo bocado o separas las galletas para comerte el relleno y luego sumergirlo en leche. No importa su preferencia, pero hay algo en la que todos o casi todos estamos de acuerdo, que la mejor parte de la galleta es la crema. 

El origen de las galletas Oreos tiene su inicio en Estados Unidos, el 6 de marzo de 1912 y hasta la fecha es una de las galletas más consumidas e imitadas en el mundo. Tanto así que la revista Time realizó un artículo que salió en marzo de 2012, donde señala que las Oreos se venden en más de 100 países. El top 5 los países que más la consumen son Estados Unidos, China, Venezuela, Canadá e Indonesia.

Composición química

Las Oreos han tenido muchas recetas diferentes en el pasado, pero la más nueva se compone de harina enriquecida, azúcar (Sacarosa C6H12O6), aceite de soja (C40H80NO8P), cacao (H8N4C7O2), jarabe de maíz con alto contenido de fructosa (C12H22O11), levadura, almidón de maíz (C6[H2O]5), sal (cloruro de sodio NaCl), lecitina de soja (C40H80NO8P) y vainillina (C8H8O3).

La cremita blanca: un delicioso secreto

Para muchos, la mejor parte al comer una galleta Oreo, es la cremita blanca. Es tan deliciosa como adictiva. Esta contiene azúcar mezclada con extracto de vainilla, manteca vegetal y otros ingredientes secretos. Nabisco (empresa encargada en elaborar la galleta) no liberará la composición química de la crema blanca para mantener su receta especial en secreto y exclusiva para ellos.

Actualmente, las galletas Oreo son consideradas veganas, ya que no poseen  ningún ingrediente de procedencia animal. Pero no siempre fue así. La receta original para el relleno, se componía de manteca de cerdo, ya que esta le confería cremosidad. Para el año 1997, Nabisco cambió a una opción vegana y kosher mediante el uso de aceites vegetales.

 

Una galleta polémica 

En el año 2014, un ciudadano estadounidense fue condenado a 15 años de prisión después de entregar la fórmula de Oreo a una empresa China, por un increíble pago de 28 millones de dólares. Debido a este escándalo, se reveló que Nabisco usó un aditivo aterrador llamado dióxido de titanio en el centro de las galletas.

Se ha demostrado que el dióxido de titanio, una sustancia química que le da a ciertos alimentos (como los helados) su color ultrablanco, y que además causa daños en el hígado y los tejidos en ratones, por lo que también podría tener algunas implicaciones graves para la salud de las personas.

Si bien no se menciona el dióxido de titanio en la lista de ingredientes, la marca de galletas subcontrata el sabor artificial de vainillina y no pudo comentar sobre lo que podrían agregar los fabricantes. Por lo tanto, probablemente no sea seguro decir si el dióxido de titanio (u otros químicos) podría estar al acecho en el relleno de la galleta Oreo.


FUENTE
  • D Jace. The chemistry of Oreos. Recuperado el 04 de junio de 2021, de: chemistryislife.com
  • Tarantino Olivia (2017). What Really Is The White Stuff In the Center of an Oreo? Recuperado el 04 de mayo de 2021, de: eatthis.com

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