Isomería: Isomería de cadena

Isomería: Isomería de cadena

La isomería es una propiedad bastante habitual en la química orgánica y se observa en compuestos que poseen igual composición química, cualitativa y cuantitativa pero muestran propiedades diferentes. Dicha diferencia en las propiedades es muy sutil, pero en ocasiones se acentúa de forma considerable.

Los compuestos isoméricos están formados por los mismos elementos, y en iguales proporciones, sin embargo, difieren en algunas propiedades debido a las diferencias en su estructura molecular.

 

Existen varios tipos de isomería:

En el siguiente artículo hablaremos solo de la isomería de cadena. Esta se caracteriza porque sus isómeros se diferencian en la distinta posición de los átomos de carbono que forman la cadena. Un ejemplo sería, el butano y el metilpropano, ambos poseen la misma fórmula empírica C4H10, sin embargo sus moléculas son diferentes, debido a que la cadena está ordenada de manera diferente.

Los isómeros de cadena se diferencian primordialmente en las propiedades físicas, no obstante, también se aprecian diferencias en las propiedades químicas, debido a las diferentes reactividades de los carbonos primarios, secundarios, terciarios y cuaternarios.

El número de isómeros crece considerablemente a medida que aumenta el número de átomos de carbono de la cadena, calculándose en 4 mil millones, el número de isómeros del hidrocarburo saturado de 30 átomos de carbono.

 

Isómeros de algunos hidrocarburos

Nombre

N° de carbonos N° de isómeros
Metano 1 1
Etano 2 1
Propano 3 1
Butano 4 2
Pentano 5 3
Hexano 6 5
Heptano 7 9
Octano 8 18
Nonano 9 35
Decano 10 75
Eicosano 20 366
Triacontano 30

4000 millones


 Por ejemplo:

Realice los isómeros de cadena del C10H22

 

 

¡Realiza los isómeros que faltan! 


FUENTE: González, Moreno. Química Orgánica Moderna. Ediciones CO-BO.

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