Grupo 9 de la Tabla Periódica: Familia del cobalto

Grupo 9 de la Tabla Periódica: Familia del cobalto

El grupo 9 de la tabla periódica pertenece a los metales de transición y es denominado también como la familia del cobalto, ya que los elementos que lo conforman poseen comportamientos representativos del elemento principal. En este caso es el cobalto.

elemento químico cobalto
Elemento representativo del grupo 9: Cobalto

El grupo 9 está conformado por: Cobalto (Co), Rodio (Rh), Iridio (Ir) y Meitnerio (Mt).

Estos metales presentan 9 electrones de valencia: 2 electrones s de la última capa y 7 electrones d de la penúltima. El elemento principal de este grupo presenta estados de oxidación bajos. Los compuestos en los que el cobalto tiene un estado de oxidación de +4 son poco comunes. El estado de oxidación +2 es muy frecuente, así como el +3. También existen complejos importantes con el estado de oxidación +1. Por su parte, el elemento iridio puede alcanzar los estados de oxidación +6 en algunos de sus compuestos como por ejemplo el IrF6.

Aunque en menor medida, al igual que con los grupos que estudiamos anteriormente, la similitud entre el rodio e iridio es mayor que con el elemento principal (cobalto). Por el contrario, el cobalto posee bastantes semejanzas con los elementos principales de los grupos 8 y 10, es decir, con el hierro y níquel.

Propiedades físicas

  • Son de color plateado y poseen brillo metálico
  • Son sólidos a temperatura ambiente
  • Conducen calor y electricidad
  • Presentan altos puntos de fusión y de ebullición
  • El cobalto al igual que el níquel y el hierro, es ferromagnético
cobalto y rodio
Cobalto y rodio, respectivamente

Propiedades químicas

  • Predomina el estado de oxidación +2 y +3, aunque el irido puede alcanzar el estado de oxidación +6.
  • El meitnerio no posee isotopos estables.
  • Son estables a temperatura ambiente.
  • Son atacados lentamente por el oxígeno a temperatura ambiente, pero rápidamente a temperaturas elevadas.
  • Son bastante reactivos. La reactividad aumenta a medida que se desciende en el grupo.
  • Forman compuestos de coordinación coloreados, esto debido a su facilidad para formar enlaces covalentes con la participación de electrones d y por su tendencia a reaccionar químicamente en diferentes estado de oxidación estables y a cambiar con relativa facilidad de unos estados de oxidación a otros.
Grupo 9 de la tabla periódica
Ubicación del grupo 9 en la Tabla Periódica

Usos y aplicaciones de los elementos del grupo 9

Cobalto.

El cobalto, al igual que muchos otros metales de transición, es usado en aleaciones para originar las llamadas súper-aleaciones, las cuales poseen una temperatura bastante estable, lo que las hace idóneas para ser utilizadas en motores a reacción y turbinas de gas. Entre otros usos de estas aleaciones tenemos en la medicina para la elaboración de rodillas y caderas protésicas, para realizar protesis dentales, entre otros tipos de implantes.

Protesis dental de Cromo-Cobalto
Protesis dental de Cromo-Cobalto

El cobalto también es usado en la fabricación de pinturas, barnices, tintas, imanes permanentes entre otros materiales.

En el mundo de la joyería, el cobalto es empleado para galvanizar las joyas ya que les proporciona a las mismas, dureza y resistencia a la corrosión.

anillo de compromiso cromo-cobalto
Anillo de aleación cromo-cobalto

El cobalto y sus compuestos son utilizados ampliamente como catalizador permitiendo acelerar la rapidez de las reacciones químicas, para la elaboración de combustibles líquidos y polímeros

Los compuestos del cobalto tienen muchas utilidades, por ejemplo el óxido de cobalto se usa como electrodo en baterías de litio. De igual manera, las baterías recargables de níquel-hidruro metálico (NiMH) también contienen cobalto.

El cobalto presenta 22 radioisótopos siendo los más estables el Co-60, el Co-57 y el Co-56 con periodos de semidesintegración de 5,2714 años, 271,79 días y 70,86 días respectivamente.

Los isotopos más estables también poseen utilidad notoria en varios campos importantes, como por ejemplo: en la medicina se utiliza el Co-60 para originar rayos gamma, los cuales son ampliamente utilizados en la radioterapia, esterilización de material médico y de desecho, desinfectar alimentos y para calcular la densidad de un objeto.

radioterapia medicina
El Co-60 se usa en la radioterapia

Por su parte, el Co-57 es usado para calcular la cantidad de cobalamina (vitamina B-12) que está presente en nuestro organismo.

Rodio

El uso más común de este elemento es como catalizador en varias reacciones químicas. Dentro de ellas tenemos: catalizador para la producción de ácido nítrico, catalizador en aleaciones de platino y otros metales.

Este metal es usado en este tipo de aleaciones ya que proporciona a los materiales una gran resistencia y durabilidad, por lo que es ampliamente utilizado. De este modo, es empleado en la elaboración de bujías de encendido de aeronaves, crisoles de laboratorio, termopares para la medida de altas temperaturas, resistencias de hornos eléctricos y láminas de fibra de vidrio.

El negro de rodio, un metal delgadamente fraccionado con cierto contenido de óxido y de hidruro es utilizado como catalizador.

En la joyería y decoración, es usado el rodio como recubrimiento de otros metales como la plata ya que hace que el material adquiera dureza y resistencia.

anillo de plata con recubrimiento de rodio
Anillo de plata con recubrimiento de rodio

Iridio

El iridio le suministra a los materiales dureza y resistencia a la corrosión para la construcción, en la elaboración de dispositivos que luego serán expuestos a altas temperaturas y en los contactos eléctricos, entre otros. Quizás su uso más notable es en la elaboración de plumas de escribir y lapiceras.

lapicero lapicera
Lapicero

El iridio es utilizado principalmente como endurecedor de platino. Como por ejemplo, en la construcción del prototipo internacional de kilogramo y el antiguo de metro por la aleación de platino (90%) – iridio (10%).

En la joyería es empleado ya que es un material resistente a la oxidación, pero resulta bastante exclusivo debido a sus altos precios.

Metro de París
La barra central del metro de París se construyó con iridio

Meitnerio

Al igual que muchos elementos radiactivos y sintéticos, al producirse en pequeñas cantidades, no posee uso comercial. Por lo tanto, es empleado en la investigación científica.

investigación cientifica laboratorio

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