Composición Centesimal. Ejercicios Resueltos

Composición Centesimal. Ejercicios Resueltos

Se entiende por composición centesimal de una sustancia, los valores en términos de porcentaje de cada uno de los elementos que la constituyen. Se obtiene por análisis gravimétrico y conociendo las masas atómicas de los compuestos puede determinarse su fórmula mínima o molecular.

 

Ejercicios
  1. Conocida la fórmula del cloruro de calcio (CaCl2), determinar el % de calcio y de cloro en dicha sustancia.

Paso 1. Se debe determinar la masa molecular  del CaCl2:

Masa atómica del calcio = 40

Masa atómica del cloro = 35,5

Ca + 2Cl → CaCl2

40 + 2. (35,5) = 111g/mol

Paso 2. Ahora se debe hallar el % de calcio:

Si en 111 g de CaCl2 → 40 g de Ca

En 100 g → X

X = 36,1%

Paso 3. Determinar el % de cloro de igual manera que en el paso anterior:

 

Si en 111 g de CaCl2 → 71 g de Ca

En 100 g → X

X = 63,9%

Por lo tanto, en el cloruro de calcio, hay 36,1% de calcio y 63,9% de cloro = 100%


 

2. Determinar los porcentajes de potasio, cloro y oxígeno en el clorato de potasio (KClO3). 

Paso 1. Se debe determinar la masa molecular  del KClO3

Masa atómica del potasio = 39

Masa atómica del cloro = 35,5

Masa atómica del oxígeno= 16

K + Cl + O → KClO3

39 + 35,5 + 3.(16) = 122,5 g/mol

Paso 2. Ahora se debe hallar el % de K. Cl y O:

Si en 122,5 g de KClO3 → 39 g de K

En 100 g → X

X = 31,84% de Potasio

 

Si en 122,5 g de KClO3 → 35,5 g de Cl

En 100 g → X

X = 28,98% de Cloro

 

Si en 122,5 g de KClO3 → 48 g de O

En 100 g → X

X = 39,18% Oxígeno 

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