Radicales alcanos, alquenos y alquinos

Radicales alcanos, alquenos y alquinos

Los radicales orgánicos son especies químicas que se enlazan a la cadena carbonada principal debido a que poseen uno o más electrones desapareados. Existen diferentes tipos de radicales y sus nombres varían según el sistema con el cual se esté trabajando. Acá te muestro cuáles son los más comunes.

 

Radicales alcanos

Estos se dividen en tres renglones: primarios, secundarios y terciarios, dependiendo del tipo de ramificación que presente.

 

Primarios

Se enlazan a la cadena a través del -CH2. Está formado por los n-alquil, iso-alquil y neo-alquil. Los n-alquil son radicales lineales y los iso y neo son radicales ramificados.

n- alquil

CP-CH2-CH3-CH3-CH3

Nombre Común: n-butil

Nombre IUPAC: 1-butil

 

Nota: se coloca n o 1 a partir del propil

CP: Cadena Principal

 

Iso-alquil

 

Nombre Común: iso-hexil

Nombre IUPAC: 4-metil-1-pentil

 

Neo-alquil

 

 

Nombre Común: neo-octil

Nombre IUPAC: 5,5-dimetil-1-hexil

 

Secundarios

Se enlazan a la cadena carbonada principal a través del -CH. Está formado por el sec-alquil que es un radical ramificado.

 

Sec-alquil

 

 

Nombre Común: sec-octil

Nombre IUPAC: 1-metil-1-heptil

 

*Excepción a la regla: El sec-propil es llamado por el sistema común iso-propil

 

Nombre Común: iso – propil

Nombre IUPAC: 1-metil- etil

Terciarios

Se enlazan a la cadena carbonada principal a través del -C. Está formado por el ter-alquil que es un radical ramificado.

 

Ter-alquil

 

 

Nombre Común: ter-heptil

Nombre IUPAC: 1,1-dimetil-1-pentil

 

Radicales alquenos

Son denominados #-alquenil donde # es el número que ocupa el doble enlace en la cadena.

Los más comunes son:

 

CH2=CH-CP

Nombre Común: Vinil

Nombre IUPAC: Etenil

 

 

CH2=CH-CH2CP

 Nombre Común: Alil

Nombre IUPAC: 2-propenil

 

 

CH3-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2CP

Nombre IUPAC: 4-hexenil

Nombre Común: No tiene

 

Alquen (R=CP)

 CH2=CP Meten

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2=CP Buten

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2=CP Penten

 

 

Radicales alquinos

Son denominados #-alquinil donde # es el número que ocupa el triple enlace en la cadena.

Los más comunes son:

 

CH≡C-CP

Nombre IUPAC: Etinil

Nombre Común: No tiene

 

CH≡C-CH2CP

Nombre IUPAC: 2-propinil

Nombre Común: propargil

 

CH≡C-CH2-CH2CP

Nombre IUPAC: 3-butinil

Nombre Común: No tiene

 

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