La Química de los discos de vinilo

La Química de los discos de vinilo

Los discos de vinilo fueron un boom entre la década de los 50, 60 y 70, por su diseño llamativo y sonido casi perfecto, ya que al ser un medio analógico, este replica con bastante exactitud la grabación original. Sin embargo, tras pasar los años y a medida que la tecnología fue reinando, estos fueron sustituidos a finales de los años 70 e inicio de los 80 por los cassettes, ya que estos eran más prácticos a la hora de escuchar música donde y cuando quisiéramos. Posteriormente ambos fueron reemplazados por los discos compactos (CD).

Disco de vinilo de la banda británica The Beatles

Hoy en día los CD han sido desplazados por aplicaciones musicales como Spotify, Youtube, Deezer, iTunes y más, pero siempre hay quienes recurren a esa nostalgia de tener y coleccionar alguna merch de su artista favorito.

En la actualidad, se ha abierto un campo donde los artistas nuevamente están ofreciendo discos de vinilo. Aunque es una opción poco práctica para algunos, es una manera de apoyar a su artista favorito y de tener un pedazo de historia en su estante. Igualmente, los CD a pesar de que están perdiendo la batalla contra las aplicaciones de música, ha permanecido viva por artistas de la talla de Harry Styles, BTS, Adele, Ariana Grande y más.

Ahora te preguntarás, ¿qué tiene que ver todo esto con la química? como ya hemos hablado en anteriores post, la química está en todo lo que nos rodea y es por eso que hoy vas a aprender de qué está hecho uno de los medios de almacenamiento musical más famoso: los discos de vinilo.

Discos de vinilo

Este formato de grabación fue lanzado en 1955 por la compañía musical Columbia Records y su nombre deriva del material que se utilizó para su creación: el policloruro de vinilo.

El policloruro de vinilo o PVC es una resina termoplástica que se usa ampliamente en la industria química debido a su versatilidad, resistencia mecánica, buen aislante térmico, eléctrico y acústico, a prueba de agua y su buena relación costo-calidad.

Estructura química del policloruro de vinilo (PVC) (C2H3Cl)n
Estructura química del policloruro de vinilo (PVC) (C2H3Cl)n
Proceso de elaboración

Para su elaboración se inicia con la llamada “galleta” que es una especie de masa de goma de PVC, la cual es introducida en una prensa caliente que moldeará el disco e imprimirá los surcos. En el proceso se obtiene dos discos, uno llamado positivo y otro negativo. El disco positivo que se obtiene pasa por un proceso de pulverizado al vacío donde es sometido a un baño de plata y cloruro de estaño, formándose una capa de níquel que se deposita sobre el disco.

A continuación se adquiere lo que sería el primer negativo y de él una serie de copias metálicas llamadas “madres”. Al igual que el disco original estas copias también poseen ranuras grabadas.

 

Colores y presentaciones

En cuanto al color, los discos de vinilo suelen ser de color negro a pesar de que el policloruro de vinilo es transparente. Se le agrega negro de carbón para optimizar la resistencia del mismo, aunque también hay vinilos de otros colores y con imágenes impresas.

Discos de vinilo de diferentes colores y tamaños. Imagen extraída de: DISCOLAI
¿Cómo se reproducen? 

Se utiliza un sistema de reproducción de sonido eléctrico llamado tocadiscos, donde se escucha con precisión la música ya que los discos de vinilo tienen la capacidad de registrar en su totalidad todos los armónicos y la información sonora.

Cómo se puede apreciar en el siguiente tweet, así se reproduce un disco de vinilo en un tocadiscos tradicional.

https://twitter.com/BTS_Soulu/status/1666101644868857857?s=20

 

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